Why Pharmacogenetics?

Patients Choice Laboratories™ (PCL) is proud to offer Pharmacogenetics testing to help you take control of your health. Pharmacogenetics testing provided by PCL delivers personalized options that are custom-tailored to your specific needs. These genetic tests have been extensively validated by highly trained scientists in our laboratory under strict conditions that satisfy state and federal clinical laboratory compliance requirements.

Many of the genes on PCL Pharmacogenetics testing panels play a large role in how your body breaks down medications. Changes in the nucleotide sequences of these genes, called mutations, can have a significant effect on how fast or slow your body metabolizes drugs; some mutations even cause a complete lack of drug metabolism!

Our Pharmacogenetics tests can provide genetic information to help you and your doctor decide the best medication you and your metabolism. Using this information in deciding your drug regimen can increase first prescription accuracy and improve the effectiveness of your medications while reducing negative side effects.

Pharmacogenetics testing is fast, easy, and accurate:

  • Your genotype doesn’t change, so the test only has to be performed once in your life.
  • PCL uses state-of-the-art testing methods with high levels of accuracy.
  • Sample collection is very simple, requiring just a few seconds with a buccal (cheek) swab.


Comprehensive Panel

CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, VKORC1, SLCO1B1, APOE, OPRM1, COMT, GRIK4, ANKK1, Factor II (F2), Factor V (F5) Leiden, MTHFR

The Comprehensive Panel includes all of the genes PCL tests, which apply to multiple conditions including pain management, heart medications, general drug metabolism, mental health treatments, and cardiovascular risk factors.

Pain Panel


When a patient’s metabolism is reduced or eliminated due to mutations in the genes on the Pain Panel, narcotics will deliver insufficient pain relief and potentially become toxic. When metabolism is increased from other mutations, negative side effects such as decreased respiratory function, nausea, and excessive sedation.

Some pain medications are prodrugs (such as codeine, which is converted into morphine), and need to be converted into different molecules by the enzymes these genes code for to provide pain relief. Patients with mutations in genes that cause metabolism of prodrugs can experience reduced pain relief (or sometimes no pain relief) compared to patients with no mutations.

Cardiovascular Panel

CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, VKORC1, SLCO1B1, APOE, Factor II (F2), Factor V (F5) Leiden, MTHFR

The Cardiovascular Panel includes genes involved in metabolism of pharmaceuticals prescribed to cardiac patients such as Warfarin (Coumadin), Clopidogrel (Plavix), and beta blockers as well as a screen for mutations that are risk factors for thrombosis. Pharmacogenetic testing for these genes can help you and your doctor reduce the time it takes to find the right medication with the least amount of negative side effects.

Cardiovascular Risk Panel

APOE, Factor II (F2), Factor V (F5) Leiden, MTHFR

PCL’s Cardiovascular Risk Panel addresses venous thromboembolism (VTE), a condition that includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). VTE is one of the top three most common cardiovascular diseases along with heart attack and stroke, and is estimated to occur in about 1 in 1000 people. Multiple mutations in these genes may increase a patient’s susceptibility to VTE.


Core Drug Metabolism Panel


The Core Drug Metabolism Panel includes genes that are important in the metabolism of many types of drugs. Knowing your genotype for these genes can provide you and your doctor with information to personalize your medication profile by increasing the effectiveness and decreasing the negative side effects of medications you take.

Mental Health Panel


Many antipsychotic and antidepressant medications (including SSRIs) are metabolized by enzymes in CYP450 gene family and can cause negative side effects at dosages only slightly higher than the dosage needed to treat a condition. PCL’s Mental Health Panel can help you and your doctor determine the right medicine for you without having to suffer through the traditional trial and error methods that can cause adverse drug reactions.


A Novel Collection Kit for Genetic Testing:
Click to open a full explanation of Patients Choice Laboratories’ COPAN eNAT with FLOQSwabs Testing


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